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  • Плин розчину в каналах дозатора-живильника віброекструзійної установки

    Запропонована формула для опису ізотермічної ламінарного усталеного плину нестискної ньютонівської рідини в квадратних збіжних каналах, що дозволяє значно спростити розрахунки гідродинамічних процесів.

    A formula is offered for description of an isothermal laminar withstand flow|current| of incompressible Newtonian liquid in the square conciliate channels, which allows considerably to simplify the calculations of various hydrodynamic processes|Carbro|.


    Розроблено математичну модель біогазового перероблення відходів паперового паковання, одержано її аналітичний розв’язок. Наведено теоретичні та експериментальні залежності кількості виділеного біогазу від тривалості перероблення за різних температур субстрату, за сталих концентраціях сухих речовин й ферменту та результати перевірки їх адекватності.

    One of the main objectives of developed countries is rational and economical use of energy. Despite the low development level of renewable energy today and disadvantages of energy strategy, Ukraine has good preconditions for further development of renewable energy and in particular bioenergy. Hundreds of tons of waste paper packaging are annually produced in Ukraine. Time of decomposition of paper packaging is from 1 to 400 years in the case of exclusion of film and foil lamination. Biogas released as a result methane fermentation of any organic matter. Therefore, studies to solve this problem by recycling paper packaging by means of fermentation and fermentation anaerobic fermentation in biofuels is important.

    Biogas – is a product of metabolism as a result of Vital Functions many groups of organisms of bacterias, that is a mixture of gaseous substances obtained by anaerobic, namely without air, and methane fermentation of organic matter. This mixture consists of approximately 65 % methane, 30 % carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and 1 % minor impurities of nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Regularities of methane fermentation process is extremely complex and depends on many factors, the most important of which are temperature, pH and concentration of dry matter.

    Highlight the four most important stages, namely: hydrolysis, acidogenesis or biological oxidation or acetogenesis or acid fermentation and the last stage, methanogenesis, at this stage 90 % methane is synthesized, 70 % of which comes from acetic acid.

    Among the technological parameters on the speed decoupling most valuable impact is the temperature of the substrate, for her, there are three modes, each of which has the speed of substrate cleavage and the speed of biogas. Temperature is the main parameter in terms of research and process optimization for the temperature regimes.

    The aim of this article is analytical research of the kinetics of the concentration field of the liquid and gas phases in bioreactors operating without stirring.

    Developed a mathematical model of the biogas process of recycling waste of paper packaging, the analytical solution of a mathematical model for a given initial and boundary conditions, which provides new biogas dependence of selected depending on the time and temperature at a given solids concentration and amount of enzyme.

    In order to conduct a pilot study to confirm the adequacy of dependency, the analytical solution of the mathematical model developed laboratory setup consisting of insulated bioreactors periodic operation and the gas container, which are interconnected.

    From Dependence found that most slow release biogas process takes place at a temperature of 20 оС, the maximum rate is observed at 50 оС. However, the specific biogas yield at different temperatures remains the same, changing only the rate of release of biogas.

    Analysis of the theoretical and experimental dependences shows that temperature influences the rate of biogas yields during biochemical processing of laminated paper packaging. A mathematical model with sufficient accuracy describes the kinetics of the process at different temperatures of the substrate.

    Adequate theoretical dependences experimental data was checked and confirmed by the Fisher criterion.